The lethal Covid-19 has posed a great obstacle to public wellbeing and pushed us all under a lockdown.
In this unusually hard time, one more team of troublemakers has long gone rogue in the countryside, threatening crop wellbeing. It is the exotic desert locust, a polyphagous gregarious pest, which travels in swarms and has a substantial urge for food.
Locusts induce important damage by devouring leaves, fruits, seeds and rising factors of plants, and even convey down trees with their excess weight. In India, desert locusts are typically spotted in the scheduled desert parts (SDA) of Rajasthan, Haryana and Gujarat from time to time through the kharif time. They have been also documented for the very first time through the rabi time final 12 months.
However, 2020 seems to have imparted distinctive powers to desert locusts, which have expanded their territory from SDA to successful agricultural lands in Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab.
Even 2018-19 was not especially sympathetic to Indian agriculture, as the invasive drop armyworm (FAW) landed in the place and struck maize creation substantially. Expertise about integrated pest management dissipated making use of electronic media, and large-scale farmer instruction programmes, aided equip the farmers in the fight from FAW.
Require for progressive solutions
The blows from this sort of adverse activities, together with the scarcity of labour for carrying out weeding and harvesting operations aside from other farm routines, desire progressive solutions for the agriculture sector. The pandemic that has brought on important decline of workdays and cash, as well, has strike the agricultural sector hard. Hence, to manage exotic pests, action up surveillance and get over the difficulties of farming amid the pandemic, the progressive technological innovation of flying drones is now poised to guidance agriculture.
Several potential clients await drone applications in Indian agriculture, which faces a burgeoning inhabitants, rising the price of agricultural inputs and the need to accomplish sustainable development targets. Accordingly, the Centre aims to introduce drones, also termed as unmanned aerial motor vehicles (UAV), to agriculture, commencing with the existing-day issue of desert locusts.
The development will come with the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare (MoA&FW) rolling out an e-procurement tender to entail UAVs in aerial spraying of pesticides. It could be a groundbreaking action for pesticide software in India, in which a lot of farmers shed their lives through the process. A observe currently prevalent in nations like the US, Australia, Japan and China, the use of UAVs in agriculture propagates the suggestions of focused software and precision agriculture.
R&D at nascent stage
UAVs in precision agriculture are not only limited to pesticide software but also in distant sensing, pest surveillance, examination of industry and soil and estimating crop heights, amongst many others. However, the investigate and development operations for UAVs are however at a nascent stage in India, even nevertheless 70 per cent of the rural inhabitants is engaged in agriculture.
Pesticide software making use of UAVs will come with its personal set of demands. These include the logistic concerns linked to drone and spraying units. While the price actions for drones need adjustments, the various excess weight of payload through spraying also wants to be accommodated for in coming up with this sort of drones. Apart from, the power concerns to guidance drone operations for 3-four hours persist. Additionally, the aerial spraying of pesticides wants to be confirmed for the protection of flora and fauna in the bordering setting making use of the proper toxicity reports.
Scientific reports are also needed to determine the suitable parameters for the flying operations in alignment with the different environmental ailments of India. Even nevertheless the government has issued e-tenders for the inclusion of drones in aerial pesticide applications, a common guideline for addressing the essential concerns in UAV-centered pesticide software remains amiss.
Normal pointers wanted
Now that the pests are evolving, increasing their host and geographical range, the availability of common pointers can help velocity up controlling them with the greatest efficacy. Just as Key Minister Narendra Modi recently underlined the great importance of self-sufficiency in fighting the pandemic, common pointers for the procedure of drones can help farmers turn into self-ample in utilising UAVs. The smart use of technological innovation can help fight invasive pests this sort of as FAW and desert locusts with mettle, avoid them from becoming endemic, and lower the price of creation though preserving significant agricultural productiveness.
Ironically, the draft common pointers for UAV-centered pesticide software organized by the Indian Council of Agricultural Analysis (ICAR) are pending acceptance by the MoA&FW for some time now. A person big obstacle to guideline acceptance is the ‘No Permission, No Acquire-off’ clause for every UAV flight by way of India’s electronic sky system. This clause proves cumbersome and impractical for the use of UAVs in agricultural operations, in which several consecutive flights continue being important for aerial pesticide software.
To get over this impediment, MoA&FW should to work jointly with the Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA) for creating suitable provisions in the electronic sky system. A feasible option could be for MoA&FW to produce a system in ICAR to check and manage drone software in agriculture in conjunction with the Directorate Typical of Civil Aviation (DGCA).
Another obstacle to UAV software in agriculture is the lack of initiative by the Central Pesticides Board and Registration Committee (CIB&RC) of MoA&FW to endorse the use of UAV in label and leaflet as an choice spraying tools for software of accredited pesticides. The requisite adjust in label claim of pesticides by the CIB&RC and important exemption in civil aviation demands for drones issued in December 2018 by the DGCA, are important for the operationalisation of drones in agriculture.
With out the acceptance and notification of ‘Standard Rules for Procedure of Drones for Pesticide Application’, the bold phone by the Minister of Agriculture to deploy drones for sprays, and e-tendering by his ministry for the empanelment of organizations for providing the services of drones for locust manage, which is a laudable initiative, would continue being elusive.
(The writers are with the South Asia Biotechnology Centre, New Delhi. Views are personal)